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Acetylcholine – A neurotransmitter in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Peripheral neurons release acetylcholine, which binds to receptors on muscle cells initiating muscle contraction.

Acupuncture – Acupuncture-related therapies stimulate specific skin points by inserting needles, applying heat or pressure, or through contemporary energy-emitting devices.  This stimulation promotes the health-enhancing life-force energy called qi.

Acute Injury – The early stages of an injury.

Allodynia – Pain from a stimulus which does not normally trigger pain.

Allogeneic Transplantation – Donor cells are from different individuals of the same species.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) - A progressive, usually fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary movement - sometimes called Lou Gerhig’s Disease after the famous baseball player who died from the disorder.

Analgesics – Drugs used to relieve pain.

Andropause - The decline in testosterone production in males during and after after middle age together with its associated physiological effects.

Angiogenesis - A key process involved in the growth of new blood vessels after wounds and injuries. Nervous-system regeneration in the spinal cord may be dependent upon such angiogenesis.

Antagonist – An agent or drug that does not intitate a biological response itself upon binding to a receptor but blocks the response from the active substance.

Anterior - The front of the body, as opposed to the backside or posterior.

Antibiotic – A substance, such as penicillin or streptomycin, produced by or derived from microorganisms that can destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria causing infectious disease.

Anticonvulsant Drugs – Drugs that have been developed for for the treatment of epileptic seizures. They have been adopted for use in treating SCI pain because scientists have noted a similarity between the underlying physiology or biochemistry observed in seizure disorders and neuropathic pain, both of which involve abnormal firing of neurons.

Antioxidant – A substance that lessens oxidative damage, such as that caused by free radicals.

Apoptosis – A form of cell death in which a programmed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells.

Arachnoid – One of the three layers of the spinal cord meinges, interposed between the dura and pia mater, and separated from the pia mater by the subarachinoid space.

ASIA Impairment Scale – Developed by the American Spinal Injury Association, this scale classifies spinal cord injuries from grade A (a complete injury) to grade E (complete recovery of function).

ASIA Motor Examination – The testing of key muscles reflecting different injury levels on a scale ranging from 0 (total paralysis) to 5 (normal). For example, the inability to move elbow flexors would be indicative of a C5 injury.

ASIA Sensory Examination – A key point in each of 28 dermatomes on the right and left side of the body is tested for appreciation of light-touch (using a cotton swab) and pinprick sensation. Testing also includes assessment of deep pressure in the anal region.

Ashworth Scale - Commonly used as an indicator of spasticity, measures the resistance of a muscle being stretched with a five-point scale ranging from 1 (no increase in tone) to 5 (limb rigid in flexion or extension).

Astrocyte – A star-shaped glial or neuronal support cell found in the brain and spinal cord.

Atelectasis - A collapsed or airless state of the lungs.

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) - A high-energy molecule used to drive most biochemical processes.

Autologous Transplantation - Transplantable donor cells are obtained from the patient who will be the recipient.

Autonomic Dysreflexia – A condition associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention or a pressure ulcer. Symptoms can include sweating, high blood pressure, headache, heart rate changes, and flushing of the skin.

Autonomic Nervous System – The part of the nervous system that controls the body’s involuntary actions, including heart muscle and glands.

Axon – A long, slender nerve fiber that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron’s cell body to target cells, including other nerves and muscles.

Ayurvedic Medicine – The traditional medicine of India.

BBB Scale - A commonly used animal test which measures recovery of hind-limb function on a scale from 0 (no hind-limb movement) to 21 (normal walking).

Blood-Brain Barrier - Restricts the passage of various substances between the bloodstream and the CNS. Injury compromises this barrier allowing for the passage of water and neuron-damaging substances into the CNS.

Bone Marrow: The soft, gelatinous tissue within bone cavities, which is the source of red blood cells, stem cells, progenitor cells, and precursor cells.

Bone-Marrow Stem Cells – Stem cells produced by the bone marrow, including hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells.

Brachial Plexus: A network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves.

Brachial Plexus Nerve Root Avulsion – Injuries in which nerve roots are stretched or torn away from the cord.

cAMP (cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate) - A molecular mediator or messenger of important cellular and neuronal processes.

Cannabis – A genus of flowering plants commonly used as a recreational drug (e.g., marijuana) but possessing a number of medical applications, including potentially pain and spasticity in spinal cord dysfunction.

Caudal: An anatomical term relating to the tail or hind part (opposite of rostral). For example, caudal to the injury site would mean below the injury site.

Cauda Equina - Because spinal cord ends far above the tailbone, long nerve extensions, collectively called the cauda equina, are required to reach the lower segments of the spine.

Central Nervous System (CNS) – Nerves of the brain and spinal cord.

Central Neuropathic Pain – Neuropathic pain caused by damage to the central nervous system.

Central Pattern Generator – A spinal-cord neuronal circuit responsible for coordinated rhythmic activity, such as walking.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) – Serum-like fluid that circulates through the spinal-cord’s subarachnoid space.

Cervical Region – Corresponding to the neck region. The cervical spine begins at the base of the skull and is composed of seven vertebrae and eight pairs of cervical nerves.

Chakras - In Eastern healing traditions, chakras are tornado-like energy vortexes, which convert higher vibrational energy into energy that the body can assimilate.

Chiropractic - Focuses on diagnosing and treating musculoskeletal disorders that affect the nervous system.

Chronic Injury – Long-term injury, a term often used for people injured more than a year.

Coccyx – The coccyx or tailbone is the final segment of vertebral column composed of typically four fused vertebrae.

Conus Medullaris – The terminal end of the spinal cord.

Complete Injury - Loss of all function below the injury site.

ComplexRegional Pain Syndrome – A chronic pain condition 1) not limited to the region of a single peripheral nerve or nerve root, 2) out of proportion to what is expected, and 3) associated with edema, skin blood-flow abnormality, or irregular activity of the nerves that stimulate sweat glands. Associated with diffuse hand pain, swelling and stiffness.

Contralateral – On the opposite side.

Contusion Injury – A common injury due to impact, which bruises the spinal cord.

Corpus Cavernosa - Cylindrical, sponge-like regions on each side of the penis shaft that become engorged with blood in erectile tumescence.

Corticospinal Tract – A collection of axons that travel between the brain’s cerebral cortex and the spinal cord.

Craniosacral System – A physiological system surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Craniosacral Therapy - A gentle hands-on procedure for evaluating and enhancing the function of the craniosacral system.

Crossed Phrenic Pathway - A normally dormant, backup pathway that can be used to restore some respiratory function after cervical injury.

Curanderismo – Traditional Mexican-American healing.

Daoyin - Physical and mental activities simultaneously carried out in conjunction with acupunctural procedures to direct the qi energy to affected body areas.

Deafferentation Pain – Pain due to the loss of sensory input into the central nervous system.

Decompression – A surgical procedure in which various tissue or bone fragments that compress the spinal cord and, in turn, compromise cord function are removed.

Demyelination – The conduction-compromising loss of the insulating myelin around nerves due to injury or disease.

Dendrites – The tree-like branches extending from the neuron cell body that receive signals from other nerve cells at synapses.

Denervation – The loss of nerve connection to, for example, a muscle.

Detrusor Muscle – Contracts when urinating to squeeze out urine.

Deep Vein Thrombosis - A blood clot that forms in a deep vein of usually the leg. This clot potentially can dislodge and travel to the lungs, where it can create a life-threatening pulmonary embolism.

Dermatome Map – A body map that shows skin sensitivity associated with various levels of spinal cord injury.

Diaphragm - The main muscle of respiration that separates the chest cavity from the abdomen.

Distal – More distant from the center.

Dorsal - Relating to the back or posterior of the body.

Dorsal Root - A collection of afferent nerves from the periphery, which brings sensory information into the spinal cord.

Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ) - The location where the dorsal roots enter the spinal cord and a key area in transmitting or processing pain stimuli.

Double Blind – An investigative procedure designed to reduce experimental bias; neither subject nor patient knows who is receiving placebo or active agent.

Dura Mater – The tough and fibrous outer membrane of the three membranes (i.e., meninges) that cover the spinal cord.

Dysesthesia – Uncomfortable and abnormal sensations (e.g., burning, wetness, itching, electric shock, and pins and needles) for which there is no external cause.

Dystonia – A movement disorder which causes involuntary, sometimes painful, twisting and repetitive movements.  

Edema – Swelling of the spinal cord after injury due to the accumulation of fluids.

Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) - A form of acupressure-assisted exposure therapy, where one taps on various acupressure points while focusing on troublesome emotional issues

Electromyography (EMG) – The electrical recording of muscle activity for diagnostic purposes.

Electrophysiology – The study of electrical activity or conduction in nerves.

Endogenous – Originating or produced from within the body.

Energy Fields – Higher level electromagnetic fields that surround the physical body, which it is believed is composed of at least seven consecutive layers of increasing vibrational energy.

Ergometer – A device for evaluating the amount of work done by a muscle or group of muscles.

Evoked Potentials – Measures nerve-fiber viability by sending an electromagnetic signal from the brain and recording the signal after it passes through the cord.

Excitatory Amino Acids – Amino acid neurotransmitters (e.g., glutamate) released from a pre-synaptic neuron that promulgates the nerve impulse in a nearby post-synaptic neuron.

Excitotoxicity - The process by which nerve cells are damaged by glutamate and similar substances.

Extension – The movement of a joint that results in increased angle between two bones or body surfaces at a joint.

Facet Joints - Small stabilizing joints located between and behind adjacent vertebrae.

Fascicles – A small bundle of nerve fibers.

FIM – “Functional Independence Measure,” a predictor of the amount of assistance or adaptive equipment an individual may need in everyday life.

Flexion - The bending of a joint so that the bones forming the joint are brought closer together.

Frankel Scale – A predecessor to the ASIA-impairment scale that measure neurological status after spinal cord injury.

Free Radicals - The initial mechanical injury generates free radical molecules. Because these molecules possess unpaired electrons, they steal electrons from lipids in nearby neuronal membranes, in turn, causing further cell death.

Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) – The use of low levels of electrical current to stimulate physical or bodily functions lost through nervous-system impairment.

Functional Magnetic Stimulation (FMS) - The use of magnetic fields to promote functional benefits.

GABA - gamma-amino butyric acid, a key amino-acid neurotransmitter which often exerts an inhibitory role in neural transmission.

Glia Cells – Neuronal support cells, such as oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the spinal cord, and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.

Granulocytic Colony-Stimulating Factor -A growth factor that stimulates the bone marrow to produce stem cells.

Gray Matter – The portion of the spinal cord comprised mainly of neuronal cell bodies and dendrites, and not myelinated axons.

Growth Cone – A specialized structure at the tip of an extending axon that regulates axonal extension during development and regeneration.

Healing Touch - An energy therapy in which practitioners consciously use their hands in an in a heart-centered and intentional way to support and facilitate physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual health.

Hematopoietic Stem Cells – Bone-marrow-derived stem cells that replenish blood cells.

Hippotherapy - Uses equine rhythmic movement to help individuals with a variety of neurological disorders, including SCI.

Histological Studies - The anatomical study of the microscopic structure of tissues. Such studies are often carried out in SCI research to evaluate the neuroprotective impact of various interventions at the injury site.

Hormone – A chemical created by one tissue and transported through the blood to influence the function (e.g., growth & metabolism) of other tissues.

Hyperbaric Oxygen – The use of pressurized oxygen to treat oxygen-deprived CNS tissue resulting from injury.

Hypnosis - A trance-like state of consciousness distinguished by increased susceptibility to suggestion, relaxation, and imagination.

Hypogonadism - A medical term for decreased functional activity of the gonads, e.g., low testosterone production by the testicles.

Hypothalmus - A region of the brain located above the brain stem that produces and secretes important neurohormones.

Hypothermia Therapy – The use of cooling procedures, which potentially preserve post-injury neurological function by reducing the cord’s metabolic and energetic requirements.

Hypoxia – A deficiency in oxygen reaching tissues.

Iliac Bone – The largest bone of the pelvis, which is a source of autologous, bone-marrow stem cells.

Incomplete Injury – Some sensation or motor function below the injury site.

Indigenous Healing – The traditional healing practices of indigenous cultures (e.g., Native American).

Inert Gases – An elemental family with unique properties, which includes helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon.

Innervate – To supply with nerves; to make contact with target muscles or nerves.

Intracavernosal – Within the corpus cavernosum.

Intraperitoneal - The injection of a substance into the peritoneum or body cavity.

Intrathecal – An injection into the intrathecal space surrounding the spinal cord.

Intravenous - Administered by injection into a vein.

Intervertebral Disc – A spongy, shock-absorbing, cartilaginous tissue lying between adjacent vertebrae.

In Vitro – Undertaking an experiment outside of a living organism, e.g., in a test tube.

In Vivo - Experimentation done in living tissue of a whole, living organism.

Ions – Molecules with an electrical charge.

Ion Channel – A protein that serves as a pore in the cell membrane, allowing the regulated flow of ions (e.g., potassium, sodium, and calcium ions) across the membrane and, in turn, neuronal conduction.

Ipsilateral – On the same side, in contrast to contralateral.

Ischemia – A reduction in blood flow.

Laminectomy – A surgical procedure which removes a portion of vertebral structures and is used for a variety of purposes, such as decompressing or accessing the spinal cord.

Laparoscopic Surgery – A surgical technique in which abdominal operations are carried out with small incisions with the assistance of a laparoscope.

Lasers – Amplify light by producing coherent light beams. Laser is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.

Lipid Peroxidation – A biochemical process that mediates secondary neurological damage to the injured cord.

Locomotion – The ability to move from one place to the next.

Lower Motor Neurons - Nerves that leave the spinal cord to connect to muscles.

Low-Level Laser Therapy – The use of coherent light beams for biostimulation.

Lumbar Puncture – A procedure in which a needle is carefully inserted into the spinal canal in the back’s lower lumbar area. It is a mechanism by which stem cells can be transplanted into the cerebrospinal fluid and, hopefully, be transported to the spinal-cord injury site.

Lumbar Region – Corresponding to the lower back; the lumbar spine has five lumbar vertebrae.

Macrophages - A key player in the immune response, macrophages are a type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material such as infectious agents.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – An imaging method used to visualize the inside of living organisms, including organs and tissues, such as the spinal cord.

Melatonin – A hormone produced by the pineal gland and a commonly available, sleep-inducing nutritional supplement that may be neuroprotective after spinal cord injury.

Meninges – The three membranes that cover the spinal cord, including the dura (outside), arachnoid, and pia mater (inside).

Meridians – Under Traditional Chinese Medicine, meridians are channels for life-force energy called qi. Energy flow through these meridians can be balanced through the use of acupuncture.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells – A bone-marrow-derived stem cell that has the capability of differentiating into a variety of tissues.

Microtubules – A component of the cell cytoskeleton, which helps to maintain cell structure, and provide platforms for intracellular transport and the separation of chromosomes during mitosis.

Mitochondria - Membrane-enclosed organelles found within most cells involved in generating energy for the cells.

Motor Evoked Potentials – Electrophysiological response recorded from muscles following direct electromagnetic stimulation of brain.

Motor Neuron – Spinal cord neurons that synapse with muscles and facilitate muscle contraction.

Myelin – A fatty insulating material enveloping neuronal axons produced by oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.

Myelography - A form of x-ray examination of the spinal cord using an injected dye for contrast.

Myelomeningocele - A neural tube birth defect in which some of the spinal cord protrudes throught the vertebral column.

Myelotomy – Surgical incision of the spinal cord.

Necrosis – The death of living cells or tissue.

Neurite: Any process, including both dendrites and axons, growing out of a neuron. The term is often used when referring to immature or developing neurons, especially when grown in culture, where it is difficult to distinguish axons from dendrites.

Neuron – A nerve cell that transmits and receives information, composed of dendrites, a cell body, and a axon.

Neuropathic Pain - Pain resulting from damage to neural tissue either within the peripheral (nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord) or central nervous system.

Neurotransmitter – Chemicals that are released by nerve cells at synapses that excite or inhibit adjacent neurons or muscle cells.

Nociceptive Pain - Pain occuring from damage to non-neural tissues, such as bones, connective tissue, muscle, skin, or other organs, that are still partially or fully innervated. It can be mechanical or musculoskeletal in nature, or arise from damage to or irritation of internal visceral organs.

Nucleus Caudalis – An area of the spinal cord located near the dorsal root entry zone.

Olfactory – Pertaining to the sense of smell. Because olfactory tissue has considerable regenerative potential, it has been transplanted into the injured spinal cord.

Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs) – A part of nasal tissue, OECs appear to have special regeneration-promoting properties when transplanted into the injured spinal cord.

Oligodendrocytes – A neuronal support or glial cell that produces insulating myelin.

Omentum - A highly vascular, stem-cell-containing fatty tissue that hangs like an apron over the intestines and lower abdomen area.

Opioids - Psychoactive, naturally occurring and synthetic molecules that bind to various receptors on the surface of neurons, including those in the spinal cord.

Osteoporosis – Loss in bone density.

Paraplegia – Spinal cord injury below the cervical level, affecting lower body function.

Parasympathetic Nervous System –   A part of the autonomic nervous system that serves to slow the heart rate, increase the intestinal and gland activity, and relax sphincter muscles.

Paraesthesias - Tingling, burning, numbness sensations of the skin.

Peripheral Nervous System – Nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord.

Phantom Pain – Pain sensations an individual experiences from a limb or organ that is no longer a part of the body or due to spinal cord injury or nerve avulsion.

Pharmacokinetic Studies - Studies which how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body.

Phase I Clinical Trial: A preliminary evaluation in a relatively small group of subjects to evaluate safety, determine side effects, and establish safe dosing.

Phase II Clinical Trial: A study in which a treatment is given to a larger group of subjects to determine if it is effective and further evaluate safety.

Phrenic Nerve Pacing – Provides respiratory assistance for individuals with higher-level, respiration-compromising injuries by electrically stimulating diaphragmatic contractions.

Pia Mater – The innermost layer of the meninges, the membrane system surrounding the spinal cord.

Pituitary Gland – An endocrine gland located near the hypothalmus at the base of the brain that secretes various hormones.

Placebo – An inactive substance given to control subjects to compare with the active-agent treatment group.

Plasticity – Adaptive processes by which the nervous system returns to normal levels of function after injury.

Posterior - The back of the body, as opposed to the frontside or anterior.

Post-Polio Syndrome – A condition in which polio survivors experience new weakenings in muscles initially affected by the polio infection

Postsynaptic - Situated after a synapse. A postsynaptic cell (e.g., another neuron or a muscle cell) contains receptors that bind to neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons.

Prana - Under ancient Hindu Ayurvedic and yoga philosophy, life-force energy prana is circulated throughout the body.

Presynaptic - Situated in front of or occurring before a synapse. A presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters that bind with the receptors of a postsynaptic cell (e.g., another neuron or a muscle cell).

Priapism - A prolonged, often painful erection, in which the penis does not return to its flaccid state within about four hours due to blood retention.

Prosthesis – A device that replaces a missing body part.

Psychogenic Erection – A penile erection produced by erotic stimuli.

Pulmonary Embolism - A blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a blood clot that has travelled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream.

Qi – Under Traditional Chinese Medicine, the life-force energy that permeates all living things.

Qigong – A system of self healing encompassing gentle movements, breathing, and meditative practices.

Quadriplegia – An injury in the cervical area, affecting all four limbs (also called tetraplegia).

Quercetin – A commonly available, antioxidant nutritional supplement found in many many foods. Inhibits damage-mediating, post-injury lipid peroxidation.

Radicular Pain – Pain caused caused by damage to nerve roots where they connect to the spinal column due to damage from the initial injury or impingement by bone fragments or disk or scar material.

Reflex Erection – A penile erection produced by touch.

Retraction Bulbs – Swellings at the tip of the proximal stumps of injured CNS neurons that lack the regenerative potential of growth cones.

Rhizotomy - A neurosurgical procedure that selectively severs spinal nerve roots.

Rostral: An anatomical adjective indicating toward the head (opposite of caudal).

Sacral Region – Sacral vertebrae are situated in the spinal column below the lumbar vertebrae and above the coccyx.

Schwann Cells – Neuronal support or glial cells responsible for myelinating axons in the peripheral nervous system.

Secondary Injury – The physiological and biochemical changes that occur after the initial mechanical injury that further damage the spinal cord.

Septicemia – A bodywide infection due to virulent bacteria enetering the bloodsteam from a local infection, i.e., blood poisoning.

Somatic Nervous System – The part of the nervous system that controls most voluntary activities in the body.

Somatosensory Evoked Potential – An electrophysiological measurement of spinal cord function. Recorded by stimulating peripheral nerves and measuring the response from the patient’s scalp.

Spina Bifida - A birth defect in which the spinal cord is malformed and lacks its usual protective skeletal and tissue coverings.

Spinous Process – A vertebral rearward projection that provides an attachment point for muscles and ligaments.

Statins – A class of drugs used to lower cholesterol in an effort to lessen cardiovascular disease risk.

Stem Cells – Precursor or progenitor cells that have the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue. Although often dichotomously categorized as either embryonic or adult, they actually represent a continuum of cell types that eventually transform into our “end-product” tissue.

Subarachnoid Space - A space, filled with cerebrospinal fluid, between the spinal-cord’s arachnoid membrane and inner most pia mater membrane.

Substance P – A neuropeptide or neurotransmitter found in the brain and spinal cord associated with pain perception.

Sudomotor Activity – Relating to the nerves that stimulate the sweat glands.

Supraspinal – Above the spinal cord or vertebral column.

Sympathetic Nervous System – A part of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes energy and resources during times of stress and arousal.

Synapses – The junction between a neuron and another neuron or muscle or gland cells. At the synapse, the axon releases a neurotransmitter that diffuse across a tiny gap to a target-cell receptor, triggering a response.

Syringomyelia – The formation of a fluid-filled cavity or syrinx in the area of the spinal cord injury.

Thoracic Region – The 12 thoracic vertebrae are located in the chest/trunk region below the cervical vertebrae and above the lumbar vertebrae.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) – A pain-relief method in which a device transmits low-voltage electrical impulses at various frequencies through electrodes attached to the skin in areas associated with pain.

Transverse Myelitis - A neurological disorder involving inflammation of the spinal cord, which can damage the myelin sheaths surrounding neurons.

Umbilical Stem Cells – Isolated from umbilical cord blood and possessing less rejection potential than most other allogeneic donor tissue.  

Upper Motor Neurons - Nerves within the spinal cord that are involved in controlling movement.

Urodynamic Studies - Diagnostic tests used to evaluate urinary-flow.

UTI – A urinary tract infection.

Ventilator – A mechanical device that promotes breathing in individuals with impaired daiphraphm function.

Ventral – Relating to the belly or front of the body.

Ventral Root – A collection of efferent, motor nerves that exit the spinal cord.  

Vertebra – The individual bones that make up the vertebral column or spine.

Visual Analog Scale (VAS) – A scale in which individuals subjects rate their pain levels on a scale usually ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable).

Vitamin E – A lipid soluble antioxidant that protects cell membranes from the free radicals generated through lipid-peroxidation, a process that spreads damage after the initial spinal cord injury.  Also called alpha-tocopherol.  

WISCI  - “Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury,” a measurement which assesses the amount of assistance required for ambulation.

Wheelchair User’s Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) - With this index, subjects reported the amount of shoulder pain associated with 15 activities of daily living (e.g., transfers, etc.). Each activity is assessed using a 1 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain ever experienced) scale. The scores for all activities are combined, giving an aggregate score ranging from 0-150.

White Matter – The portion of the spinal cord that contains myelinated axons.

Xenogeneic Transplantation – Donor cells obtained from different species.

Yoga - A system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being. Derived from a Sanskrit word which means yoke or union.